venerdì 20 febbraio 2015

CLIL: The Fosse Ardeatine

a Marco,
giovane studioso dell'antifascismo

1. Premessa

Sul numero di gennaio della rivista online "Printed_Matter" compare un notevole intervento di Alessandro Portelli sul tema delle Fosse Ardeatine. A partire dalla lettura di questo articolo, ho pensato di elaborare una "unità CLIL" per studenti di una classe quinta.



Ai ragazzi si può chiedere di documentarsi preventivamente (in inglese) sui seguenti aspetti:
- l'occupazione romana da parte dei nazisti,
- la figura del Herbert Kappler,
- la figura di Eric Priebke,
- la strage delle Fosse Ardeatine.

In classe si possono proporre le seguenti attività:
- leggere il testo di Portelli e rispondere a un questionario vero/falso;
- individuare le "tesi" di Portelli e fare un'analisi delle "argomentazioni" del saggio;
- discutere il tema della memoria.

Avendo il neoeletto Presidente della Repubblica, Sergio Mattarella, deciso -come uno dei primi atti del suo settennato- di visitare le Fosse Ardeatine, si può proporre la lettura della notizia o la visione del video dal sito Quirinale.it .


2. Le attività CLIL

First: preliminary activity

I. Please, read the following entries:
* Herbert Kappler (link)
* Erich Priebke (link)
* Karl Hass (link)
* Alois Hudal (link)
* Ardeatine massacre (link)

II. Watch some images about "Via Rasella" at The Bundesarchiv.


III. Watch some pictures about "The Fosse Ardeatine" at the archive of the newspaper L'Unità.



Second

Please, read carefully the essay by Portelli and answer "True" or "False" to the following sentences. If the sentence is "False", write a correct sentence.

Do not try to answer without having read before the essay and without reading it again very carefully. Consider that the essay is about "myths and stereotypes", and therefore it may be possibile that you too will be an unwitting victim of them.

1. In public memory has prevailed an incorrect version of the story. TRUE or FALSE?

2. No warning of the reprisal was given to the public. TRUE or FALSE?

3. The purpose of the German authorities was to punish the perpetrators of the bomb outrage. TRUE or FALSE?

4. There was no attempt to catch the partisans. TRUE or FALSE?

5. There was no invitation to the partisans to surrender themselves to avoid reprisal. TRUE or FALSE?

6. The Germans posted bills all over the city. TRUE or FALSE?

7. The Germans search for the partisan is a myth. TRUE or FALSE?

8. There is a gap between the historical and judicial record on one side, and the communal sense memory on the other. TRUE or FALSE?

9. The Ardeatine massacre was the worst Nazi war crime committed in Italy. TRUE or FALSE?

10. The Fosse Ardeatine massacre was the worst Nazi war crime committed in Rome. TRUE or FALSE?

11. The victims of the Fosse Ardeatine massacre belonged to a relatively homogeneous group. TRUE or FALSE?

12. The victims came from all over Italy. TRUE or FALSE?

13. The victims came from all social classes. TRUE or FALSE?

14. All the victims were mature people. TRUE or FALSE?

15. The victims were taken only among the political prisons that the Germans had on hand at the moment of the attack. TRUE or FALSE?

16. The Nazis picked up random people off the street. TRUE or FALSE?

17. All the victims were Communists. TRUE or FALSE?

18. The action in Via Rasella was the act of a single person. TRUE or FALSE?

19. The action was a "terroristic act". TRUE or FALSE?

20. The man supposed to have organized the action was so guilty after killing 32 German men that subsequently committed suicide. TRUE or FALSE?

21. Many of the value of the Resistance are embodied in the Italian Constitution. TRUE or FALSE?

22. The partisans should be blamed for the massacre. TRUE or FALSE?

23. According to Portelli, a large section of the Italian population would not accept the anti-Fascist ethos. TRUE or FALSE?

24. Between the partisan action and the massacre there were at least three days. FALSE
The retaliation was carried out within 24 hours. TRUE or FALSE?

25. The German reaction was a knee-jerk reaction. TRUE or FALSE?

26. The partisan action was the only armed action in Rome, in which Germans were killed. TRUE or FALSE?

27. There was no Resistance in Rome. TRUE or FALSE?

28. The Nazi Commanders needed to punish the city. TRUE or FALSE?

29. The basic reason why retaliation had not taken place before was that previously the Germans had preferred to keep things quiet. TRUE or FALSE?

30. The victims were both women and men. TRUE or FALSE?

31. The relatives agreed about the Allied Command proposal to build a moniment on top of the burial site. TRUE or FALSE?

32. Dr Ascarelli, a pathologist, agreed with the relatives that a recognition body by body could be done. TRUE or FALSE?

33. The disinterment and the process of identification lasted short time. TRUE or FALSE?
It went on for months and months. TRUE or FALSE?

34. The Carabinieri, the Army, and the Air Force were active in patriotic resistance. TRUE or FALSE?

35. The armed forces had lost a number of men at the Fosse Ardeatine but these victims are hardly remembered. TRUE or FALSE?

36. The Communists were closely identified with the Resistance. TRUE or FALSE?

37. The Resistance was confined to a left-wing ghetto. TRUE or FALSE?

38. Official speeches always mentioned who killed the victims. TRUE or FALSE?

39. All the victims can be called "martyrs" or indeed "heroes". TRUE or FALSE?

40. All the victims can be termed "innocent people". TRUE or FALSE?

41. The Resistance was a unified movement involving the majority of the Italian people. TRUE or FALSE?

42. The version "They should have turned themselves in" is an-anti partisan version. TRUE or FALSE?

43. A number of anti-partisan version were widespread among the Left as well. TRUE or FALSE?

44. The widows of the victims, dressed in black, were regarded as almost a disturbance to other citizens. TRUE or FALSE?

45. Today, many young people do not make an automatic connection between the attack and the massacre, as cause and effect. TRUE or FALSE?

46. The Nazis called "stücke", meaning "bits", the prisoners that they deported to the extermination camps. TRUE or FALSE?

47. Nowadays, young people see the massacre as an image of absurd death. TRUE or FALSE?

Third

Please, write a glossary of keywords on your notebook.

Eg

reprisal = an act of retaliation [ritorsione]
retaliation = the action of returning a military attack; counterattack [rappresaglia]
outrage = an extremely strong reaction of anger, shock, or indignation [attentato]
a knee-jerk reaction [una reazione istintiva]
a thought-through decision [una decisione ben ponderata]
bill = a written or printed advertisement posted or otherwise distributed; in the essay =
the supposed document in which the Nazis threatened the population of Rome before the massacre
quarries [cave]
caves [grotte]
graves [tombe]
ditches [fosse]
stücke (german) = bits, pieces

Add your words, learned while reading.

Fourth

The essay you have read is a very good "argumentative text", and it could be seen as a "model" to imitate when you are writing your own "short essay" for the final examination.
So, try to reconstruct the logical thread inside of the essay.
There are two ways. Firstly, you could identify a diachronic sequence of events, such as the partisan attack, the massacre to punish the city, the disinterment of bodies, the building of the monument, and so on till the reaction of young people today.
But (secondly), according to the subtitle and an internal suggestion, arguments are explained through the series History, Mith, Ritual, and Symbol. So, find these "structural keywords" along the text to identify "its four parts".

Fifth

Discuss with your mates the following quotations:

(A) "There's a huge gap between the historical and judicial record [...] on one side, and the distorted, exaggerated, mythologized, communal sense memory on the other. And within this space lies all the complexity of national identity, the foundations of Italian democracy, the politics of memory, and the interplay of institutional and personal memories."

(B) "Italy is that rare nation where, fifty years after the fact, it is still arguing over whether its freedom fighters were criminals or heroes; a place where the question of whether it was a crime to attack a marching unit of uniformed police attached to the SS, belonging to a foreign occupying army, can still be a matter of debate."

(C) "The democracy that came out of the Resistance was not the unanimous choice of the majority of the people, but rather a project, a plan, a dream; and a dream that not everyone shared. there was also a resistance to democracy itself."

(D) "A large section of the Italian population would not accept the anti-Fascist ethos that  was, in theory, the inspiration of the Italian Republic."

(E) There is a "difference between putting someone under the earth and really burying them".

(F) "The dead had to be unburied in order to bury then again".

(G) "The institutions of the Italian State preferred not to remember the fact that they had been involved in the anti-Fascist and anti-Nazi war."

(H) "So the fact that the Resistance was a conflict was played down, as was the fact that partisans were armed fighters who had not only died, but also killed. All the monuments to the partisans are monuments to dying partisans."

(I) "As a historian recently said, "The Resistance is the only war which is celebrated for the battles it has lost, rather than the ones it has won, because the ones that it has won would remind us that it was a war."

---

3. Altri materiali (in italiano)

Si tenga presente che la bibliografia sul tema è vastissima. Qui si offrono solo alcuni spunti.

* Video di Rai Storia con la ricostruzione degli eventi:


* Alcuni dei tanti articoli dal blog di Alessandro Portelli:
   Giustizia per le Fosse Ardeatine, 23 marzo 2014
   Due interventi su Erich Priebke, 17 ottobre 2013

* Alessandro Portelli, L'ordine è già stato eseguito. Roma, le Fosse Ardeatine, la memoria, Roma: Donzelli, 1991 (volume parzialmente digitalizzato da Google)


Il libro è stato tradotto anche in Inglese e pubblicato da Pallgram Macmillan nel 2003 e 2007 con il titolo The Order Has Been Carried Out.

Descrizione in inglese:

"Winner of the 2005 Oral History Association Book Award On March 24, 1944, Nazi occupation forces in Rome killed 335 unarmed civilians in retaliation for a partisan attack the day before. Alessandro Portelli has crafted an eloquent, multi-voiced oral history of the massacre, of its background and its aftermath. The moving stories of the victims, the women and children who survived and carried on, the partisans who fought the Nazis, and the common people who lived through the tragedies of the war together paint a many-hued portrait of one of the world's most richly historical cities. The Order Has Been Carried Out powerfully relates the struggles for freedom under Fascism and Nazism, the battles for memory in post-war democracy, and the meanings of death and grief in modern society." (Fonte)

* Robert Katz, Death in Rome, New York: Macmillan, 1967

Descrizione in inglese:

"Death in Rome, which the Chicago Tribune called a “master­piece of literature [and] a masterpiece of historical scholar­ship,” was a worldwide bestseller published in nineteen edi­tions and ten languages. A study of the World War II Ardeatine Caves Massacre, it became an international cause célè­bre culminating in a ten‑year freedom‑of‑speech court battle involv­ing the Vatican."
(Fonte)

Il libro è stato tradotto in italiano e ripubblicato nel 2004 da Net con il titolo: Morte a Roma. Il massacro delle Fosse Ardeatine.

* Per comprendere le polemiche e la battaglia giudiziaria che seguirono la pubblicazione del libro di Katz, si legga l'articolo apparso sul "Telegraph" il 18 ottobre 2010, alla morte dello studioso.

* Robert Katz, The Battle for Rome, New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003. È stato parzialmente digitalizzato da Google.

Il libro è stato tradotto in italiano e pubblicato da Il Saggiatore (2003) con il titolo: Roma città aperta. Settembre 1943-Giugno 1944. È stato parzialmente digitalizzato da Google.


Un aspetto didatticamente positivo di questo libro è la presenza, nelle prime pagine, di una mappa di Roma con l'indicazione di alcuni dei luoghi che spesso si studiano ma che un ragazzo che non vive nella capitale non saprebbe localizzare.

* Martino Contu, Mariano Cingolani, Cecilia Tasca, I martiri ardeatini. Carte inedite 1944-1945 in onore di Attilio Ascarelli a 50 anni dalla scomparsa, Cagliari: AMED Edizioni, 2012


Descrizione:

"Dedicato ai 335 martiri ardeatini questo volume, nell’inaugurare la Serie “Archivio Attilio Ascarelli” della collana scientifica «Agorà» delle Edizioni AMED, ricorda il docente Attilio Ascarelli nella ricorrenza del 50º anniversario della sua scomparsa. L’illustre medico legale, all’indomani della strage nazista delle Fosse Ardeatine (24 marzo 1944, Roma), ricevette l’incarico di ricostruire le dinamiche dell’efferato eccidio e di identificare i corpi delle vittime. I documenti prodotti nel corso del suo difficile lavoro furono raccolti, ordinati e gelosamente conservati dallo stesso Ascarelli. Dopo la sua morte la famiglia Ascarelli, generosamente, donò le carte all’Istituto di Medicina Legale dell’Università di Macerata. 
Il riordino del prezioso materiale, conservato per cinquant’anni e in gran parte inedito, del Fondo “Fosse Ardeatine” ha permesso di redigere l’inventario qui pubblicato. 
Per la prima volta viene ricomposta la serie completa delle biografie dei martiri, offrendo un contributo storiografico che apporta elementi nuovi e originali nello studio della più nota delle stragi naziste compiute in Italia, contribuendo a restituire dignità alle vittime e alle loro famiglie. Il sacrificio di uomini, giovani e anziani, ebrei e cattolici, antifascisti e non, viene ricordato rendendo pubbliche le informazioni contenute nelle singole schede, tuttora unica fonte di notizie per molti dei martiri ardeatini."
(Fonte)

* Martino Contu, Cecilia Tasca, Mariano Cingolani, I verbali inediti di identificazione dei martiri ardeatini. 1944-1947, Cagliari: AMED Edizioni, 2013



Descrizione:

"Dedicato ai 335 martiri ardeatini questo volume, il secondo della serie “Archivio Attilio Ascarelli” nella collana scientifica Agorà delle Edizioni AMED, segue la pubblicazione delle Schede biografiche, commissionate alla Scuola di Polizia di Roma dal prof. Attilio Ascarelli, l’illustre medico legale che identificò i corpi delle vittime della strage nazista delle Fosse Ardeatine (24 marzo 1944, Roma).
Questo secondo volume raccoglie gli inediti verbali di “esumazione” che Ascarelli custodì accuratamente nel suo archivio, oggi conservati presso l’Istituto di Medicina Legale dell’Università di Macerata.
I dati raccolti, secondo le informazioni antropometriche e le lesioni riscontrate, svelano il metodo che ha permesso l’identificazione dei singoli martiri. Questo straordinario lavoro compiuto dai medici legali offre una documentazione fondamentale che permette di cogliere anche i tratti umani delle persone prima della strage: uomini con le loro molteplici identità anagrafiche, etniche, professionali e religiose, prima che diventassero corpi senza vita." (Fonte)

---

4. Answers to CLIL activities

1. In public memory has prevailed an incorrect version of the story. TRUE
2. No warning of the reprisal was given to the public. TRUE
3. The purpose of the German authorities was to punish the perpetrators of the bomb outrage. FALSE
The purpose was not to punish the perpetrators, but to punish the city. TRUE
4. There was no attempt to catch the partisans. TRUE
5. There was no invitation to the partisans to surrender themselves to avoid reprisal. TRUE
6. The Germans posted bills all over the city. FALSE
Bills posted before the massacre never existed. The Germans put the bills up after they'd already killed the 335 victims. TRUE.
7. The Germans search for the partisan is a myth. TRUE
8. There is a gap between the historical and judicial record on one side, and the communal sense memory on the other. TRUE
9. The Ardeatine massacre was the worst Nazi war crime committed in Italy. FALSE
It was not. There were much worse ones and with many more victims. TRUE
10. The Fosse Ardeatine massacre was the worst Nazi war crime committed in Rome. FALSE
It was not. Almost 2000 death resulted from the deportation of the Roman Jews. TRUE
11. The victims of the Fosse Ardeatine massacre belonged to a relatively homogeneous group. FALSE
What makes the Fosse Ardeatine massacre so historically and symbolically powerful is the absolute heterogeneity of the victims. TRUE
12. The victims came from all over Italy. TRUE
13. The victims came from all social classes. TRUE
14. All the victims were mature people. FALSE
Their age ranged anywhere from 14 to 74. TRUE
15. The victims were taken only among the political prisons that the Germans had on hand at the moment of the attack. FALSE
The dead included both the political and the non political. TRUE
16. The Nazis picked up random people off the street. TRUE
17. All the victims were Communists. FALSE
Among the victims there were monarchists, ultra-left Communists, Socialists, Liberals, and Christian Democrats. TRUE
18. The action in Via Rasella was the act of a single person. FALSE
It was a very well organized military action in which 18 partisans took part. TRUE
19. The action was a "terroristic act". FALSE
As said before, the action was a military action. TRUE
20. The man supposed to have organized the action was so guilty after killing 32 German men that subsequently committed suicide. FALSE
The person is still alive. TRUE
21. Many of the value of the Resistance are embodied in the Italian Constitution. TRUE
22. The partisans should be blamed for the massacre. FALSE
This idea is a counter-myth generated by the unfinished quality of the Italian democracy. TRUE
23. According to Portelli, a large section of the Italian population would not accept the anti-Fascist ethos. TRUE
24. Between the partisan action and the massacre there were at least three days. FALSE
The retaliation was carried out within 24 hours. TRUE
25. The German reaction was a knee-jerk reaction. FALSE
It wasn't a knee-jerk reaction, it was a carefully thought-through political decision. TRUE
26. The partisan action was the only armed action in Rome, in which Germans were killed. FALSE
Via Rasella was the 43rd attack that took place in Rome against the Germans. TRUE
27. There was no Resistance in Rome. FALSE
There was a great deal of resistance, both active and passive, armed and unarmed. TRUE
28. The Nazi Commanders needed to punish the city. TRUE
29. The basic reason why retaliation had not taken place before was that previously the Germans had preferred to keep things quiet. TRUE.
30. The victims were both women and men. FALSE
They were all men. TRUE
31. The relatives agreed about the Allied Command proposal to build a moniment on top of the burial site. FALSE
They protested because they wanted a recognition body by body. TRUE
32. Dr Ascarelli, a pathologist, agreed with the relatives that a recognition body by body could be done. TRUE
33. The disinterment and the process of identification lasted short time. FALSE
It went on for months and months. TRUE
34. The Carabinieri, the Army, and the Air Force were active in patriotic resistance. TRUE
35. The armed forces had lost a number of men at the Fosse Ardeatine but these victims are hardly remembered. TRUE
36. The Communists were closely identified with the Resistance. TRUE
37. The Resistance was confined to a left-wing ghetto. TRUE
38. Official speeches always mentioned who killed the victims. FALSE
None of the official speeches had mentioned who killed the victims. They simply "gave their lives" or "sacrificed themselves". TRUE
39. All the victims can be called "martyrs" or indeed "heroes". TRUE
40. All the victims can be termed "innocent people". FALSE
Some of them had voluntarily put their lives on the line - the partisans, for instance - others had not; the Jews, or those victims randomly picked up off the street, had never elected to risk their lives. TRUE
41. The Resistance was a unified movement involving the majority of the Italian people. FALSE
Not at all - it is a myth. TRUE
42. The version "They should have turned themselves in" is an-anti partisan version. TRUE
43. A number of anti-partisan version were widespread among the Left as well. TRUE
44. The widows of the victims, dressed in black, were regarded as almost a disturbance to other citizens. TRUE
45. Today, many young people do not make an automatic connection between the attack and the massacre, as cause and effect. TRUE
46. The Nazis called "stücke", meaning "bits", the prisoners that they deported to the extermination camps. TRUE
47. Nowadays, young people see the massacre as an image of absurd death. TRUE

Nessun commento: