mercoledì 30 ottobre 2013
BBC Radio 4: "The Invention of Italy". Episode 3
Ascoltiamo il terzo episodio della serie "The Invention of Italy", andato in onda sul canale BBC Radio 4 il 28 ottobre 2013.
"Misha Glenny concludes the Invention of Italy in the Alps and Trieste, ambitious targets of Italian warmongers in the First World War.
"You need to think of the fighting taking place in Flanders applied in the rocky limestone of the Alps .... the Italians at the bottom, the Austrians at the top." Mark Thompson, The White War
In 1915 Italy entered the Great War on the side of France, Britain and Russia. The aim ? To gain new territory up north to the watershed of the Alps; and also east over the Adriatic into parts of what later became Yugoslavia. The price of these ambitions - nearly three quarters of a million Italians dead in the snow and rock. They died upholding the nationalist belief this new Italian nation - barely fifty years old - needed to spill blood to prove itself, to demonstrate they were not just waiters and ice cream salesmen.
Chief among the characters who dragged Italy into war was a poet, Gabriele d'Annunzio, bald as a coot and a great seducer of Italian women, and Italian minds. In the third and final Invention of Italy, Misha Glenny travels along the frontline, from Trieste via alpine trenches to Lake Garda, where d'Annunzio's Vittoriale degli Italiani attempted to create an Italian fighting tradition by dragging a battleship up the hill and setting it among ornamental gardens.
With expert contributions from Joze Serbec of the Kobarid museum in Slovenia; Lucy Hughes-Hallet, author of The Pike, the autobiography of d'Annunzio shortlisted for the Samuel Johnson Prize; plus Simon Winder, David Gilmour, David Laven, and Mark Thompson, author The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front. "
- Museo di Caporetto (Kobariski Muzej), Slovenia
- Lucy Hughes-Hallet, The Pike. Gabriele d’Annunzio, Poet, Seducer and Preacher of War
Dal sito dell'editore Harper Collins:
"Longlisted for the Samuel Johnson prize for non-fiction; the story of Gabriele D’Annunzio: poet, daredevil – and Fascist.
In September 1919 Gabriele D’Annunzio, successful poet and occasional politician, declared himself Commandante of the city of Fiume in modern-day Croatia. His intention – to establish a utopia based on his fascist and artistic ideals. It was the dramatic pinnacle to an outrageous career.
Lucy Hughes-Hallett charts the controversial life of D’Annunzio, the debauched artist who became a national hero. His evolution from idealist Romantic to radical right-wing revolutionary is a political parable. Through his ideological journey, culminating in the failure of the Fiume endeavour, we witness the political turbulence of early 20th-century Europe and the emergence of fascism.
In The Pike, Hughes-Hallett addresses the cult of nationalism and the origins of political extremism – and at the centre of the book stands the charismatic D’Annunzio: a figure as deplorable as he is fascinating."
- Mark Thompson, The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919
Dal sito dell'editore Faber and Faber:
" The first narrative history in English of the Italian front: a major forgotten conflict of the First World War.
In May 1915, Italy declared war on the Habsburg Empire, hoping to seize its ‘lost’ territories of Trieste and Tyrol. The result was one of the most hopeless and senseless modern wars - and one that inspired great cruelty and destruction. Nearly three-quarters of a million Italians - and half as many Austro-Hungarian troops - were killed. Most of the deaths occurred on the bare grey hills north of Trieste, and in the snows of the Dolomite Alps. Outsiders who witnessed these battles were awestruck by the difficulty of attacking on such terrain. General Luigi Cadorna, most ruthless of all the Great War commanders, restored the Roman practice of ‘decimation’, executing random members of units that retreated or rebelled. Italy sank into chaos and, eventually, fascism. Its liberal traditions did not recover for a quarter of a century - some would say they have never recovered.
Mark Thompson relates this nearly incredible saga with great skill and pathos. Much more than a history of terrible violence, the book tells the whole story of the war: the nationalist frenzy that led up to it, the decisions that shaped it, the poetry it inspired, its haunting landscapes and political intrigues; the personalities of its statesmen and generals; and also the experience of ordinary soldiers - among them some of modern Italy’s greatest writers.
A work of epic scale, The White War does full justice to one of the most remarkable untold stories of the First World War. "
Il libro di Thompson è stato pubblicato in Italia da Il Saggiatore.
- Quali motivazioni spinsero l'Italia a entrare in guerra dalla parte dell'Intesa?
- Tra le terre "irredente", in quali si parlava italiano e in quali no?
- Che cosa accadde a Caporetto?
- I soldati provenienti da varie regioni italiane condividevano gli obiettivi sbandierati dai nazionalisti?
- Che giudizio viene espresso nel radiodocumentario sulla disparità tra conquiste territoriali e costi umani per raggiungerle?
- Secondo D'Annunzio, che cosa dovevano dimostrare gli italiani? (*)
- Che cosa differenziava gli interventisti dai neutralisti?
- Secondo M. Thompson, quale risultato positivo fu comunque ottenuto dalle gerarchie militari italiane, a fronte dell'evidente negatività dell'ingente numero di caduti?
- In questo senso, che cosa rappresenterebbe la prima guerra mondiale per gli italiani?
- Chi è Carlo Orelli e cosa racconta della sua esperienza bellica?
- Quale significato ha assunto la parola "caporetto" nel linguaggio comune?
- Cosa accadde a Vittorio Veneto?
- Perché, al termine della guerra, si parlò di "vittoria mutilata"?
- Che cosa fece D'Annunzio a Fiume?
- Per quale motivo, nel corso dell'episodio, vengono citati Mussolini e Lenin? (**)
(*) Sulla decima musa, Energèia, e, in generale sulla posizione di D'Annunzio, si legga Per la più grande Italia: orazioni e discorsi, Milano: Treves, 1915, in particolare le pp. 117-126
(**) L'episodio di Stanko Robančič è raccontato da M. Thompson a p. 159 della traduzione italiana, parzialmente digitalizzata da Google.